What Are the Elements and Principles of Graphic Design?

Graphic design is a field that involves combining different elements and principles to create visually appealing and effective designs. Here are the basic elements and principles of graphic design:

Elements of Graphic Design:

Line: The basic building block of all visual design is a line, which is a long, thin mark made by a pen, pencil, or brush. Lines can be straight, curved, thick, thin, or broken.

Shape: Shapes are created by lines that enclose a space. Shapes can be geometric (such as circles, squares, or triangles) or organic (such as natural forms like leaves or clouds).

Color: Color is a powerful tool in graphic design, and it can create emotion, mood, and meaning. Colors can be primary, secondary, or tertiary, and they can be warm or cool.

Texture: Texture refers to the surface quality of a design element. It can be rough, smooth, shiny, or dull, and it can be created through visual or tactile means.

Space: Space refers to the area around and within a design element. It can be positive (the actual objects or shapes in the design) or negative (the empty space around and between the objects).

Principles of Graphic Design:

Balance: Balance is achieved when the visual weight of a design is distributed evenly. This can be achieved through symmetry, asymmetry, or radial symmetry.

Contrast: Contrast refers to the difference between two or more design elements. This can be achieved through differences in color, size, shape, texture, or value.

Proximity: Proximity refers to the relationship between design elements in terms of their physical distance from one another. Elements that are closer together are perceived as being related, while those that are further apart are perceived as being separate.

Repetition: Repetition is the use of the same design element multiple times. It can create unity and consistency in a design.

Alignment: Alignment refers to the placement of design elements relative to one another. Proper alignment creates a sense of organization and order in a design.

These elements and principles are the foundation of graphic design and are used to create a variety of visual communication products such as logos, posters, websites, and packaging designs.


  1. Draw drafts based on inspiration
  2. Draw graphics with professional software
  3. Add details to the graphic
  4. Complete the final modifying for graphic
  5. Graphic Copyright Filling
  6. Final graphic: Graphic usage scene